BRITISH POUNDS STERLING, Vol. 7-7.2
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Since then, Turkey has been trying to adopt to European Union's laws and requirements. This means Turkey has tried to adjust economic and social values to fulfill EU requirements. Therefore, Turkish governments have been always open and prometer to innovations. Developing online shopping system have become only one of this innovations.
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Consequently it offered new oppurtunuties and also led to even greater competition they are facing. This make businesses to leave classical management mentality and to adopt new business and market strategies.
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The internet, which becomes a part of daily lives, also become a part of everyday shopping. To retain customers, who are just a few keystrokes away from any web sites without any constraint, has become very difficult. In case of any dissatisfaction, these customers would prefer a high number of competitiors and the switching cost is almost absence, thus in online environment, e-stores is to make it even more important to ensure customer loyalty. Customer loyalty has been crucial for businesses.
Moreover customers should be satisfied to return again the website and purchase again. In online shopping, customers have some expectations from companies before shopping, as in traditional shopping.
To satisfy or dissatisfy this expectations or how extent of satisfaction is achieved create the perceived value of customers. Satisfaction or dissatisfaction occur as depends on experiences which exist after online shopping. This situation affects the trust to company. Trust issue is exceed with a few successful transactions, after individiuals start feel safe and believe that this supplier answer their needs and wants. On the other hand provided information is another issue in terms of online shopping for Park and Kim ; Since online shopping is an activity which related to a computer-system, individuals cannot touch or feel products.
Therefore their decisions based on the information that provided by online retailer. Information issue not only important in terms of availability situation, it is also important in convenience and personalisation concept. Web site design, access to information, access time to information also influence on behaviours of comsumers. Without the online purchasing channel, all those operations would be more costly on the phsical effort and time perspective, and moreover it would not be possible for the customer to reach requisite information about the product and to compare it with the most of the competitors.
As being advantageous for both firms and customers, online sale technology is accepted by the firms while not accepted sufficiently by the customers. As an outcome of the usage of internet in shopping activities of consumers, the issue of using internet in cross-border commercial activities came to stage. Although individuals adopt purchasing goods and services from internet as the time passes, cross-border online shopping is still a concept that most of the consumers hesitate to engage.
Thus, this research aims to find out about the factors that prevent the consumers to engage in cross-border online shopping. Transaction costs According to results of several researches transaction costs affect consumers' decision about buying online Teo, et al. Individiuals may lose their willingness to buy online due to high costs of shipping. It provides much benefit to companies and consumers by using the advanced technological capabilities of the Internet. Although online shopping is a new tool for marketing and is thought to be a modern way of shopping, it brings some disadvantages with it.
Risk In the online shopping context risk have been the most researched topic Chang, et al. It is analyzed that risk can be categorizes in two parts which are product and transaction processes. Individuals who are avoid of shopping online concern about the satisfaction with the purchase.
They mostly think that this activity will not meet with their needs Hogan, ; cited in Chang et al. The other risk perception is about transaction. System security can influence shopping intention. Security risks As the internet becomes more integral to daily life we spend considerable time online. Concerns over security, risks and legal issues remain mostly unresolved. There is mainly two types of risk have been realised; 'product category risk and financial risk' Bhatnagar, et al.
According to Ko financial risk also includes private information side. Since the Internet does not provide examining the goods physically, consumers have to trust or believe the information and shown pictures Jarvenpaa and Tractinsky, ; cited in Ko, et al. The technical details of the research are described and detailed.
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Important issues such as, philosophy of the research, preparation of the research, the method and procedure of data collection, components of questionnaire, sampling decision are covered. The first process is topic selection. The knowledge, observations and interest on a topic help to finalyse the topic. After that, theories and literatures have been searched to support the research.
enter Next, the problem and the research question has been developed and research method has been selected. The next step is to collect data with using the methods planned.
After the data is collected, I analyse the data with selected theories. At last, the conclusion is drawed. This research started with exploratory study however developed into an explanatory study since the first aim was gaining knowledge about consumer behaviour and following with being able to gain information toward online consumer behaviour. After that specific factors have been identified which are the important during the online purchase. This knowledge is then used to find relationship between these factors. Philosophies and approaches are the first and second layers of the 'research onion' respectively Saunders, et al, , cited in Saunders et al, ; To be clear about the theory in the early stages of the study, has brought out a decision, it is to decide in which approach the study should be conducted.
There are two main research approaches have been using. A deductive approach have been chosen for this study. The deductive approach attempts to figure the theory first and then moving from the theory, the collected data is tested. Moreover, the deductive approach is valid for quantitative data and since this study consists quantitative data, it is appropriate for this study.
Positivism is the philosophy which provides a natural science way to conduct the research. The researcher does not affect or be affected by the subject of the research and the data can be collected free from the researcher's values and feelings. The collected data can be 'law-like generalisation' Remenyi et al.
This study will be managed by a positivist philosophy. Secondary data also provide a useful source to answer the research question Saunders et al, ; Furthermore, secondary data allows to understand the topic area while informing the primary research design. To investigate consumer behaviours and purchasing decisions, a quantitative approach is used to analyse the results from the survey. Survey in the form of questionnaire is chosen for this research. Surveys are a kind of research which are more rigid than interviews.
They are usually used to gather ideas from a large population.
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